Research Findings

Incidence Studies - Other Cancers

Body Size Indicators and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Individual-Level Data from 19 Prospective Cohort Studies (2017)
 In a pooled analysis of 1.9 million individuals from 19 U.S. and European cohort studies, gallbladder cancer (n=567 cases) risk increased significantly with increasing measures of adult BMI, young adult BMI, adult weight gain, height, waist circumference, and waist-height ratio, but was not associated with waist-hip ratio. Findings did not differ appreciably by sex or other demographic/lifestyle factors.
Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk: individual participant meta-analysis of 52 epidemiological studies (2015)
 A pooled analysis of 52 epidemiological studies identified a significantly increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality in women who used hormone replacement therapy, even if for less than 5 years.
Anthropometry and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort data (2015)
 A pooled analysis of 20 cohort studies reported that mortality from head and neck cancer was increased with greater waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio after adjustment for BMI; risk was also related to BMI, but only in non-smokers.
An aggregated analysis of hormonal factors and endometrial cancer risk by parity (2013)
 In a pooled analysis of 173,519 postmenopausal women from four prospective studies, risks for endometrial cancer with established hormone-related risk factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, body mass index, oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy) were examined by parity status. Endometrial cancer risks associated with these factors did not vary significantly between parous (1,378 cases) and nulliparous (360 cases) women.
Ovarian cancer and smoking: individual participant meta-analysis including 28,114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies (2012)
 A meta-analysis based on 28,114 women with ovarian cancer from 51 epidemiological studies revealed that smoking-related risk differed by ovarian cancer cell type. Risk for mucinous ovarian cancer was significantly higher in current vs. never smokers, particularly among those with borderline malignant tumors, while risks for endometrial and clear-cell ovarian cancers were significantly reduced in current vs. never smokers. Smoking was not associated with risk for serous ovarian cancer.
Ovarian cancer and body size: individual participant meta-analysis including 25,157 women with ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies (2012)
 In a meta-analysis that included 25,157 women with ovarian cancer from 47 epidemiological studies, ovarian cancer risk increased significantly with increasing height, weight, and body mass index (BMI). The observed increase in ovarian cancer with increasing BMI did not differ appreciably by age, year of birth, ethnicity, education, age at menarche, parity status, family history of ovarian or breast cancer, cigarette smoking, or alcohol consumption, but did vary with menopausal hormone use, with BMI related to risk in never users only.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and bladder cancer: A pooled analysis (2011)
 In a pooled analysis of 2,489 breast cancer cases from three studies, bladder cancer risk was reduced with non-aspirin NSAIDs use, especially among smokers. Risk was not related to aspirin use.
Sunlight, hormone replacement status and colorectal cancer risk in post-menopausal women (2010)
 Estimates of ambient ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure for U.S. radiologic technologists were calculated by linking self-reported residences at different ages with erythemal exposures derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database.
Body mass index, effect modifiers, and risk of pancreatic cancer: a pooled study of seven prospective cohorts (2010)
 In an aggregated analysis of 943,759 individuals from seven cohort studies, 2,454 pancreatic cancers were diagnosed during an average follow-up of 6.9 years. Statistically significant increased risks were observed in overweight (BMI= 25 to <30) and obese (BMI= 30 to <35) men and women compared to those with normal BMI levels, and risks increased significantly for women and nearly significantly for men with increasing BMI. Age, gender, cigarette smoking, physical activity, and history of diabetes did not alter the relationship between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk.
Ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives: collaborative reanalysis of data from 45 epidemiological studies including 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 controls (2008)
 An evaluation of data for 23,257 women with ovarian cancer and 87,303 women without ovarian cancer from 45 studies in 21 countries revealed that oral contraceptive use provides long-term protection against ovarian cancer. The authors estimate that oral contraceptives have already prevented about 200,000 ovarian cancers and 100,000 ovarian cancer deaths, and that at least 30,000 ovarian cancers per year will be prevented during the next few decades.