Research Findings

Dosimetry - Ultraviolet Radiation

Improving Assessment of Lifetime Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure in Epidemiologic Studies: Comparison of Ultraviolet Exposure Assessment Methods in a Nationwide U.S. Occupational Cohort (2018)
 Satellite-based and ground-based ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures were estimated for 67,189 U.S. radiologic technologists by linking self-reported lifetime residential histories with the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database and the Department of Energy Average Daily Total Global Solar Radiation (AVGLO) database, respectively. The satellite- and ground-based estimates were highy correlated, although the ground-based estimates, which incorporate fluctuations in cloud and ozone levels, were 14-15% higher.
Individual, environmental, and meteorological predictors of daily personal ultraviolet radiation exposure measurements in a United States cohort study (2013)
 Factors potentially associated with daily personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure were evaluated in 123 U.S. radiologic technologists who wore personal UVR dosimeters for 8 hours a day for up to 7 days. Factors considered included age, sex, education, marital status, race, body mass index, cigarette smoking, indicators of sun sensitivity (e.g. complexion, eye color, hair color, sunburns), latitude, and measures derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database (i.e. ambient UVR, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, humidity). After adjusting for all other factors, the strongest predictors of daily personal UVR exposure were ambient UVR (derived from self-reported residential histories and annual mean UVR doses from TOMS), latitude, daily rainfall, and skin reaction to prolonged sunlight.
Spatiotemporal and spatial threshold models for relating UV exposures and skin cancer in the central United States (2009)
 Statistical models were explored for estimating the dose-response relationship between ultraviolet radiation exposure measures derived from the NASA Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database and non-melanoma skin cancer incidence in a sample of U.S. radiologic technologists. Models took into account time spent outdoors in the sun, skin sensitivity characteristics, sun protection measures, severe sunburn history, and other covariates.
Simplified categorization of outdoor activities for male and female U.S. indoor workers-a feasibility study to improve assessment of ultraviolet radiation exposures in epidemiologic study questionnaires (2009)
 A pilot study of 124 retired U.S. radiologic technologists evaluated the feasibility of using a short checklist of outdoor activities to improve estimation of sun exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Participants completed a daily activity diary of indoor and outdoor activities for one week. Investigators classified these activities into seven groups (driving, yard work, home-maintenance, walking or performing errands, water activities, other recreational or sports activities, and leisure activities or relaxing outdoors), which represented 94% of the time spent outdoors among working and retired men and women.
Assessment of lifetime cumulative sun exposure using a self-administered questionnaire: reliability of two approaches (2009)
 We compared the reliability of lifetime sun exposure estimated from self-reported numbers of hours spent outdoors during different periods (time-based approach) with that from self-reported time spent outdoors according to specific activities (activity-based approach) in 124 radiologic technologists. Using self-administered mail questionnaires, evaluation of test and re-test responses revealed that the activity-based questionnaire produced an increase in overall reliability of sun exposure in adult years and over the lifetime that was greater in women than men.
Agreement between diary records of time spent outdoors and personal ultraviolet radiation dose measurements (2008)
 This study assessed the validity of self-recorded sun exposure and time spent outdoors among 124 volunteers age 40 and older within the U.S. Radiologic Technologists cohort. Participants were asked to wear a polysulfone dosimeter to measure ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and to record in a daily diary all activities undertaken between 9:00 AM and 5:00 PM in 30 minute intervals over a 7-day period. A significant correlation was observed between diary records of time spent outdoors and UVR dose measurements. Activities that occurred around noon time and those that typically involved sun exposure were more closely correlated with UVR doses than those that occurred in the morning or late afternoon and in ones that were shaded from the sun.