Research Findings

Dosimetry - Personal Medical Radiation

Thyroid Radiation Dose to Patients from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures over Eight Decades: 1930-2010 (2017)
 Absorbed radiation doses to the thyroid gland were estimated for common patient diagnostic radiology exams, including radiography, mammography, dental radiography, fluoroscopy, nuclear medicine, and computed tomography (CT), during eight decades from 1930 to 2010. Doses from most procedures declined over time.
Estimated Organ Doses to Patients from Diagnostic Nuclear Medicine Examinations over Five Decades: 1960-2010 (2017)
 Per-procedure weighted average radiation doses to 14 organs were estimated for 17 nuclear medicine exams administered during 10 five-year periods from 1960-2010 based on a comprehensive literature review, administered activity, and ICRP dose coefficients. Weighted organ doses were also estimated for 49 radiopharmaceuticals used during this time period. While organ doses from most procedures declined over time, doses gradually increased for some procedures, e.g. brain and skeleton scans, and increased substantially for cardiac procedures.
Organ doses from diagnostic medical radiography-trends over eight decades (1930 to 2010) (2016)
 Patient doses to 13 organs from the most common radiographic procedures performed during 1930-2010 were estimated based on typical technical parameters used in each calendar period. Doses declined substantially over time, especially in the 1990s and 2000s, owing to changes in technology, imaging protocols, and protective measures.
Use of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine in the United States: 1960-2010 (2015)
 Data were collected from nuclear medicine radiology experts and a comprehensive literature review on the use of radiopharmaceuticals and typical administered activities for nuclear medicine procedures performed during 1960-2010 for use in retrospective reconstruction of occupational and personal medical radiation doses.
Reconstruction of absorbed doses to fibroglandular tissue of the breast of women undergoing mammography (1960 to the present) (2012)
 Estimates of absorbed radiation dose to fibroglandular breast tissue from mammography exams during 1960 to present (in 5-year categories) were generated. Doses were influenced by changes over time in key factors, including imaging protocols, X-ray target materials, voltage, filtration, incident air kerma, compressed breast thickness, and breast composition.