Research Findings

Descriptive Studies

Changing Patterns in the Performance of Fluoroscopically Guided Interventional Procedures and Adherence to Radiation Safety Practices in a U.S. Cohort of Radiologic Technologists (2016)
 This paper presents a detailed description of frequencies performed 21 different types of fluoroscopically-guided (FG) interventional procedures, associated work practices, and safety measures used during 1950-2009 by 12,571 radiologic technologists who reported working with FG procedures. This information will be used along with badge dose data to estimate organ-specific radiation doses to assess radiation-related health risks in technologists performing FG procedures.
Historical patterns in the types of procedures performed and radiation safety practices used in nuclear medicine from 1945-2009 (2016)
 Among 4,400 radiologic technologists who worked with radionuclide procedures, the median frequency of diagnostic procedures performed increased from 5 to 30 per week between 1945 and 2009 primarily related to increasing use of cardiac and non-brain PET scans. Except for apron use, which declined over time, use of other radiation safety practices increased substantially.
Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures (2014)
 Occupational doses to technologists who conducted diagnostic radioisotope procedures during the 1950s to mid-1970s were estimated based on information provided by an expert panel of nuclear medicine radiologists on typical protocols, radioisotopes, and clinical practices used for specific types of procedures over time.
Individual, environmental, and meteorological predictors of daily personal ultraviolet radiation exposure measurements in a United States cohort study (2013)
 Factors potentially associated with daily personal ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure were evaluated in 123 U.S. radiologic technologists who wore personal UVR dosimeters for 8 hours a day for up to 7 days. Factors considered included age, sex, education, marital status, race, body mass index, cigarette smoking, indicators of sun sensitivity (e.g. complexion, eye color, hair color, sunburns), latitude, and measures derived from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) database (i.e. ambient UVR, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, humidity). After adjusting for all other factors, the strongest predictors of daily personal UVR exposure were ambient UVR (derived from self-reported residential histories and annual mean UVR doses from TOMS), latitude, daily rainfall, and skin reaction to prolonged sunlight.
Re: "From menarche to menopause: trends among US women born from 1912 to 1969" (2007)
 This letter to the editor noted differences in mean age at menarche reported by two studies recommended that investigators with other large cohorts publish information on birth cohort trends in chronic disease risk factors.
Trends in reproductive, smoking, and other chronic disease risk factors by birth cohort and race in a large occupational study population (2002)
 Knowledge of trends in risk factors for cancer, heart disease and other chronic diseases can help us understand historic disease patterns and help us anticipate future disease burdens. In order to help understand trends in chronic disease risk factors, we examined how height, smoking, and reproductive factors compared among each of 10 birth cohorts (born between the period before 1920 until after 1960) in the USRT cohort. Among the trends observed were that the proportion of young men (<18 years) smoking generally fell in each birth cohort after 1925, whereas the proportion of young women smoking rose for those born after 1925. Among women born since 1940, the mean age of menarche for white women has remained at 12.5 years, but has declined among black and Asian/Pacific Islander women.
A health survey of radiologic technologists (1992)
 This paper provides a general description of the study cohort and follow-up methods used in the first survey (mid-1980s). All individuals who were certified by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists for at least two years through 1982 were eligible for the study. We initially identified 143,517 eligible radiologic technologists and later added 2,505 technologists who were inadvertently missed, bringing the total cohort to 146,022. The cohort is primarily female (73%), and 58% were born before 1950 (mean year of birth, 1944). Technologists were certified between 1923 and 1980 (mean year of certification, 1968), mainly in radiography (92%). We sent the first survey to 132,454 living technologists for whom we had good addresses, of whom 90,305 completed and returned the mail questionnaire and another 14,324 technologists responded to a brief telephone interview. Mail questionnaire respondents provided information about their work history, personal medical radiation procedures, gynecologic and reproductive histories (women), diagnoses of cancer and other medical conditions, family history of cancer, and demographic (such as birth date, marital status) and lifestyle (such as cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption) characteristics.